THE PUZZLET PAGE

 FUNCTION:  MaxInt().  Pass an integer to this function and it finds the maximum-value digit within the integer and returns that value to the calling routine. This is one of those functions that are so short you may be tempted to ask why not just put the code in the main routine and save the effort? There are two very good reasons. Firstly, you may need to repeat this operation many times over from different parts of your program. Having a function means it only has to be typed into the code once. In addition, if you type the function in without error, it is always right. But if you have to type it into several parts of your program, a new opportunity for typos arises each time. Secondly, it makes for neat top-down programming. The main routine can just say something like: min = MinInt(n). It's immediately clear to even an untutored reader what's going on, an uncluttered appearance is maintained, and the main routine is physically much shorter, making a visual overview much easier. It's up to you what data type you make the argument, depending on the type of integer you want to process.

 Type Exponent of 2 Value int 230 1073741824 uint 231 2147483648 int64 261 2305843009213693952 uint64 262 4611686018427387904

 Declaring the function must be done like this: declare MaxInt(m: int) (or whatever integer type you want). Here's the code: sub MaxInt(m)' Returns the maximum value' digit of argument m.' Will give incorrect result if' m not within integer limits.' By Dave Ellis.def LSD, max: intmax = 0do    LSD = m % 10: get LSD    if LSD > max        max = LSD    endif    m = m/10: 'chop off LSDuntil m = 0: 'all chopped off!return maxThe lines will be numbered below to make a detailed description simpler to follow.

 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 def LSD, max: intmax = 0do    LSD = m % 10: get LSD    if LSD > max        max = LSD    endif    m = m/10: 'chop off LSDuntil m = 0: 'all chopped off!return max

 Here's a blow-by-blow description of exactly what the code does.

 1 def LSD, max: int.   Declaration of local variables.  LSD holds the Least_Significant (rightmost) digit of the integer currently being processed.  max is used to store the greatest digit of the function's argument discovered so far.

 2 max = 0.  The value stored in variable max is initialised here to its minimum possible value, 0. As the function works through its process, this value will increase to that of the greatest digit in the argument.

 3 do.  Opens a do-until loop.

 4 LSD = m % 10.  Line 4 uses integer arithmetic. It means "take the remainder of dividing m by 10, and save it in variable LSD, discarding the rest .  Overwrite the value already stored in LSD by this new value." If m is, say, 12345, then m divided by 10 will be 1234 remainder 5. The 5 is the bit we want.  It's saved back into LSD.

 5 if LSD > max.  Line 5 is asking the question "Is the value stored in variable LSD greater than that stored in variable max?

 6 max = LSD.  Line 6 is only executed if the answer to the question posed in line 5 is "Yes."  This means that the new value stored in variable LSD is greater than that currently stored in variable max.  In other words, a digit has been found whose value is greater than any found previously in argument m.  Clearly, the last value must be discarded and the new one saved. So line 6 is saying "Copy the value stored in variable LSD into variable max, over-writing whatever was already stored there."

 7 endif.  Housekeeping - closes if-endif clause opened in line 5.

 8 m = m/10.   The instruction m = m/10 means "change the value in m to be equal to m/10." If m is 12345, the new value will be 1234.5, won't it? No! The original declaration defined m as an integer, a number with no decimal part.  So the decimal part is dropped, and we end up with 1234. This has effectively lopped off the LSD.

 9 until m = 0.  The code now reaches the end of the DO loop. It needs to decide whether to execute the loop again, or just move on to the next instruction.  If the last time it processed m it was only one digit long, executing m/10 would reduce it to zero. At that time all processing must be finished, and no more executions of the loop are necessary. This last instruction recognised that condition. It can be paraphrased as "Execute the DO loop again unless m equals zero."

 10 return max.  The final line returns whatever value is currently stored in variable max to the calling routine.  This will, of course, be the argument's least-value digit, as required.

Here's a trace of the function for an argument 539476:

 Argument LSD max Comments 398476 0 Initial conditions 398746 6 6 6 replaces 0 in max 39874 4 6 Ignored 3987 7 7 7 replaces 6 in max 398 8 8 8 replaces 7 in max 39 9 9 9 replaces 8 in max 3 5 9 Ignored 0 9 Final value

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